Real Time 3D (RT3D) Ultrasound

George Stetten's Home Page

Between 1992 and 1999, I worked with Olaf von Ramm, Stephen Smith, John Castelucci, and others at Duke University constructing the first Real Time 3D ultrasound (RT3D) machine. The scanner used a unique matrix array to scan a volume without physically moving the transducer. I am just beginning to work on this page.


Sheikh, K., S. Smith, et al. (1991). “Real-Time, Three Dimensional Echocardiography: Feasibility and Initial Use.” Echocardiography 8(1): 119-125.

Smith, S. W., H. G. Pavy, et al. (1992). “Improved real-time volumetric ultrasonic imaging.” Ultrasonic Imaging 14: 186-211.

Smith, S. W., J. Henry G. Pavy, et al. (1991). “High-speed ultrasound volumetric imaging system - Part I: Transducer design and beam steering.” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control 38(2): 100-108.

von Ramm, O. T., S. W. Smith, et al. (1991). “High-speed ultrasound volumetric imaging system - Part II: Parallel processing and image display.” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control 38(2): 109-115.

von Ramm, O. T. v., H. A. Pavy, et al. (1991). “Real-Time three dimensional echocardiography: The first human images.” Circulation abstract

G. Stetten, T. Ota, C. Ohazama, C. Fleishman, J. Castelucci, J. Oxaal, T. Ryan, J. Kisslo, O. von Ramm (1998) "Real-Time 3D Ultrasound: A New Look at the Heart," Journal of Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Procedures, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 73-84, August, 1998.

G. Stetten, S. Pizer, (1999) "Medial Node Models to Identify and Measure Objects in Real-Time 3D Echocardiography," IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, Vol. 18, No. 10, pp 1025-1034, Oct. 1999. download .pdf

T. Ota, C. Fleishman, M. Strub, G. Stetten, C. Ohazama, O. von Ramm, J. Kisslo (1999) "Real-Time Three Dimensional Echocardiography: Feasibility of Dynamic Right Ventricular Volume Measurement Using Saline Contrast," American Heart Journal, vol. 137, pp 958-66.

M. Collins, MD, A. Hsieh, C. Ohazama, T. Ota, G. Stetten, C. Donovan, J. Kisslo, T. Ryan, (1999) "Assessment of Regional Wall Motion Abnormalities with Real-Time 3-Dimensional Echocardiography," Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 7-14, January, 1999.

J. Kisslo, B. Firek, T. Ota, D.H. Kang, C.E. Fleishman, G. Stetten, J. Li, C.J. Ohazama, D.B. Adams, C. Landolfo, R. Ryan, and O.T. von Ramm (2000): Real-time Volumetric Echo: The Technology and the Possibilities. Echocardiography. 17:773-779.

G. Stetten, “Real-Time 3D Ultrasound Methods for Shape Analysis and Visualization,” Methods: Special Issue on Real-Time Signal Processing in the Neurosciences (in press, 11/2001).